Hello, I am looking for someone to write an article on Biochemical Principles. It needs to be at least 2000 words. The synthesis of energy molecules is the ultimate goal of carbohydrate metabolism. Therefore, one may define it as the process by which carbohydrates are broken down into simpler molecules which result in the release of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate or ATP. The body requires energy in order to function. Any biological process or activity including respiration requires energy. Therefore, carbohydrate metabolism sustains mammalian life. The process often begins in the small intestine.
When a person consumes carbohydrates, their body works on larger saccharides to convert them into smaller molecules. In the event that simple monosaccharides are already present, they will pass directly from the capillaries of the small intestine into the bloodstream. However, for complex carbohydrates like most starches including bread and potatoes, the enzyme amylase will work on them in order to convert them into tri and disaccharides. The latter molecules will then be hydrolyzed to glucose. Some mammals like a man cannot digest beta glucose which is present in some starches. However, ruminants have the capacity to digest cellulose because their enzymes work on beta glucose.
The hormones insulin, glucagon, and epinephrine control the metabolism of carbohydrates. Usually, when the body has excess glucose, insulin will cause uptake of this excess into liver fat tissue or muscles. Glucose is in the form of glycogen when in the liver and muscles. This conversion of glucose into glycogen occurs through glycogenesis. Conversely, when glucose is in low supply in the blood, it is obtained through the breakdown of glycogen which is supported by the hormone glucagon.
Glycolysis is the key process in energy synthesis or carbohydrate metabolism. The process involves the conversion of glucose into pyruvate as well as ATP or energy. Therefore, one may state that .pyruvate and energy are the main products of carbohydrate metabolism. This process begins with the conversion of glucose into an intermediate product known as glucose-6 phosphate. As this process occurs, 2ATP molecules are converted into 2 ADP molecules. The latter molecule is then converted into fructose-6-phosphate. This process causes the conversion of one ATP molecule into one ADP molecule. This molecule then becomes fructose 1,6 biphosphate which eventually changes to two glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate molecules. These are converted into 1, 3 biphosphoglycerates, and NADH. NADH is a combination of 2 NAD molecules and 2 phosphate ones. The 1,3 biphosphoglycerate is changed into 3-phosphoglycerate. This process entails the conversion of 2ADP molecules into ATP molecules.