Hi, need to submit a 1500 words paper on the topic Cells and Genes. This compartmentalization is prevalent in prokaryotic as well as a eukaryotic cell. The dominant type i.e. the eukaryotic cell consists of single and double membrane-bound organelles in two types of cells, animal cells, and plant cells, both having only minute differences yet accounting for the great diversity of life. The roles performed by each organelle are essential to the life of the entire organism. The organelles are as follows:
CELL WALL: This is freely permeable, rigid, and firm and gives proper shape to the cell. It is composed of cellulose and other conjugated molecules. Animal cells lack cell walls and so do not have a properly contained shape. Substances that help to keep the cell wall rigid are chains of pectin, glycan, and cellulose. All are conjugated compounds or polysaccharides with beta 1, 4 linkages among the consecutive glucose residues, in case of cellulose.
CELL MEMBRANE: This is selectively permeable and helps control the traffic into and out of the cell. It is comprised of a lipid bilayer in which protein molecules are embedded like a mosaic. It stops the cytoplasm from flowing out and provides a barrier from the outer-cell environment. Present in both plants and animal cells.
The presence of maintained levels of cholesterol helps to maintain the fluidity of the membrane. It should be noted that this membrane is not static but is fluid, Hydrophobic ends of the phospholipid subunits are embedded inside the membrane while the hydrophilic ends protrude outwards.
NUCLEUS: The double membrane-bound nucleus is the control center of the cell. It commands and controls the working of the entire cell via mRNAs (messenger Ribonucleic Acids). The nucleus is further composed of subunits.
Nuclear pores: the nuclear membrane is discontinuous at certain points forming an entrance or exit for metabolites and RNA to enter or leave the cell, into the cytoplasm. Usually, it is found in continuity with the endoplasmic reticulum. Nuclear pores can be as many as three thousand in a particular nucleus.