Need an research paper on does propionate affect the expression of nrf-2. Needs to be 10 pages. Please no plagiarism. According to Reichdart, et al. (2014), propionate is secreted in the human colon through microbial fermentation. Propionate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), which along with two other, acetate and butyrate, are referred to as the common short fatty acids. However, what are short fatty acids? Short-chain fatty acids are fatty acids that have less than eight carbons. The number of carbons in fatty acids affect their physical functions along with their chemical characteristics (Stewart, 2008). In the case of propionate, it has three carbon atoms. Propionate makes up twenty percent of the total SCFAs, while the other two constitute the rest (den Besten, et al., 2013). As propionate has been described, the question that arises is what is NRF-2? Nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2) is also known as GA binding protein. This is according to Priya, Johar, and Wong-Riley (2013) who state that NRF-2 is a factor of transcription found in the family known as the E-26 transformation-specific. As a protein, it has a functional component made up of a β and an α sub-unit. The two subunits can form a heterotetramer or a heterodimer. As indicated, the area involved with the triggering of transcription is located in the β sub-unit. On the other hand, the α sub-unit comprises the field, ETS DNA binding field, which binds to either the TTCC or the GGAA motif. As a transcription factor, NRF-2 regulates various cellular processes like the synthesis of proteins and the cell cycle. The protein is located in specific neurons that function to control the translocation of the nuclear and transcription of its α and β sub-units (Bruni, et al., 2010). The main question that the paper now seeks to answer is whether the SCFA propionate affects the expression of NRF-2.
Gugneja, et al. (1995) successfully cloned NRF-2 with both β and α subunits. The researchers utilized PCR that had HeLa cells. With the help of degenerate primers developed from the existing sequences of amino acids obtained of refined GABP proteins, they were able to clone the GA-Binding Protein 2. However, over the years, it had always been thought the cloned NRF-2 were either of the two variants, α, and β. Nevertheless, on further research by various studies such as one conducted by Sementchenko and Watson in the year 2000, it was evaluated that the four splice variants were all under the gene GABPB.