Write 11 pages with APA style on Self-enhancing Comparisons in Aerobics. Thus, the effects and interactions of the two independent variables were observed on two dependent variables. The first independent variable – the subject’s performance standard – had two levels for the study – high and low. The second independent variable was the performance standard of the class. also divided into two levels – high and low. .

Each group consisted of 25 of a total of 100 participants in the study. This was done to ensure that the majority of the participants represent the test condition. The authors seem to have overlooked the possibility that as ‘new’ individuals. the participants may pay more attention to each other as compared to the rest of the group. Also, the presence of 24 others would dilute the threat and advantage conditions – an effect that is not considered. These participants were recruited under a deception condition, but complete care was taken that no harm – mental or physical – was caused to the participants in the long term. There are nevertheless ethical concerns about the use of a deception condition. The classes from which the participants were recruited were quite heterogeneous in their composition of age, ability, and other possibly relevant factors. This heterogeneity would affect the chosen sample as well as their perception of the test condition group. These factors could confound data. as could factors like sex (there were disproportionately more women) and a number of participants per condition (which was 25 per cell, and thus, considered a small sample size). There is also a concern about the scoring of the self with a generic other. The participants had only one exposure to the test set. and thus may have chosen to compare to their regular class (which is more familiar) to the test set to which they were primed.

A variety of statistical procedures were carried out in order to test the hypotheses put forth. The study used Two Way ANOVA’s, student’s t-tests, correlations, and the chi-square test. The two way ANOVA’s allowed the authors to study the interaction effects between the two independent variables, while the t-test’s helped test for differences between the absolute mid-score and the mean comparison score. Chi-Square was used to test for cross tabs analysis to support the results of the t-tests and the ANOVA. Correlations were used to develop indices of comparison and to test the relationship between the dependent variables. All these tests require the data to be normally distributed, and with the exception of the Chi-Square, they also require that the variances be equal for all groups and the data to be on at least an equal-interval scale. There is concern about all these assumptions being met as no pre-testing is mentioned. and the validity of the choice of the tests, as the use of univariate tests where multivariate ones are applicable does increase the possibility of Type I error. .